By MIKE MILLER
OSU Extension Medina County
Whether itâ€™s for health and nutrition, safety, sustainability or some other reason, consumersâ€™ food-purchasing choices have widened. In the mix with local foods, organics and genetically modified products now comes country of origin labeling (COOL).
On Sept. 30, mandatory country of origin labeling became effective for meat and perishable agricultural commodities like fresh fruits and vegetables. Fish and shellfish have been subject to COOL requirements since April 2005.
â€œRetailers are now required to notify consumers whether the product they are buying is of U.S. origin or from another country,â€ said Ian Sheldon, Ohio State University Andersons Professor of International Trade with the Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics.
Products falling under COOL requirements include beef, lamb, pork, chicken, goat, wild and farm-raised fish and shellfish, fresh fruits and vegetables, and some nuts like peanuts, pecans and macadamia nuts. Under COOL, ingredients in processed food items are not required to be labeled. However, many imported products still must indicate the country of origin of their ingredients under the Tariff Act of 1930.
â€œFor example, frozen peas and carrots are processed foods and in principle are not subject to COOL requirements. However, if those peas and carrots came from another country, then the product has to be labeled,â€ Sheldon said.
Apart from giving consumers more choices in what products they buy, Sheldon doesnâ€™t see much benefit with the implementation of COOL.
â€œIâ€™m not sure what the economic logic is, Sheldon said. I just donâ€™t see what the specific risks are for such a law to be required.
If itâ€™s about safety, then perhaps we should be spending money on food safety. Do we want to leave it to consumers to determine if a product is safe based on a label? Perhaps some U.S. producers see it as a means of protecting themselves from foreign competition. But so many foreign producers, like those from Australia and New Zealand, are already doing a good job of marketing their products based on country of origin.â€
Sheldon said if anything, COOL might further drive up already high food prices because of the costs retailers must incur to make sure items are labeled. Those costs eventually will trickle down to the average shopper.
â€œThe one thing I donâ€™t like about COOL is the across-the-board implementation,â€ he said. â€œThat means consumers will be paying higher prices for products whether or not they care which country their food is coming from. It has nothing to do with freshness, taste or quality.
â€œThe COOL label is simply a characteristic added to a food product that ultimately the consumer will have to pay for. I think itâ€™s something that will hurt some consumers in the long run.â€
Whatever impact, if any, COOL will have on the market, Sheldon said the new law was designed ultimately to give consumers greater food choices based on their preferences.
â€œThere is a segment of the population that obviously wonâ€™t care about COOL, but there is also a segment of the population that wants it and is willing to pay for it,â€ Sheldon said. â€œWhether they worry about food safety problems such as E. coli or mad cow disease, or worry about whether their raspberries come from California or Mexico, there will be some demand for products based on country of origin labeling.â€
For more information on country of origin labeling, log on to the U.S. Department of Agricultureâ€™s Agricultural Marketing Service Web site at www.ams.usda.gov.
Miller may be reached at 330-725-4911.