June 28, 2016

Intermittent clouds

The drone debate: Ohio a major player in development of drones

Matt Mishak doesn’t fear the rise of the drones. Mishak, the chief prosecutor for the city of Elyria, thinks unmanned aircraft systems, as those who deal with the machines prefer to call them, are a boon to society.

“It’s an exciting, very capable new technology with the potential for such severe cultural change that everybody needs to be involved in the conversation,” he said.


Mishak’s interest in drones is personal.

He co-founded a company, Drone-werx, that builds a helicopter-like drone. He also teaches a class on drones and rocketry at Lorain County Community College.

LCCC holds one of only 81 licenses to fly drones issued nationwide by the Federal Aviation Administration.

Ohio is a major player in the development of drones:

•Three other public colleges have licenses — Ohio University; Sinclair Community College, in Dayton; and Eastern Gateway Community College, in Ashtabula County.

•So does the state Department of Transportation.

•And the Medina County Sheriff’s Office also is experimenting with drones.

The sheriff’s two drones look like model helicopters. They weigh about 2 pounds and can stay in the air 15 to 20 minutes before the battery runs down.

Mishak’s drones also look more like futuristic helicopters than the larger drones used by the military and CIA to find and destroy targets in the Middle East.

But critics of drones in the U.S. cite privacy concerns and want to see limits placed on how the growing technology is used.


Gary Daniels, associate director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Ohio, said while drones have useful and legitimate applications, they give the government and private companies a far greater ability to watch the public than most people would be comfortable with.

“Especially since 9/11, we live in very much a surveillance society,” he said.

Lorain defense attorney Zachary Simonoff, who took Mishak’s class last year, said he sees both sides of the debate.

On the one hand, he can see the good a drone can do. For instance, he said firefighters could use drones to scout a blaze to see if people are trapped in a burning building.

But he also understands the concerns about privacy and the potential for abuse by law enforcement.

“Do we really want to be watched 24 hours a day is really the question,” Simonoff said.

While the courts have said it’s acceptable for helicopters and planes to monitor roads to traffic violations or look for marijuana fields, they’ve limited police use of infrared cameras, he said.

Simonoff said drones could probably legally serve a similar function to traffic cameras, but when they start flying around a neighborhood, they would be intruding on people’s privacy.

For instance, if a woman were sunbathing topless in a backyard that was surrounded by a privacy fence, would she be charged with public indecency if a drone flew overhead and an officer saw her, Simonoff wondered.

He also questioned what would happen to the images recorded by the drones, given the concerns airline passengers had about controversial X-ray machines at airports that digitally strip away the clothing of passengers going through airport security.

Steve Fryburg, a U.S. Army veteran and retired police officer who heads up the group No Drones Ohio, said he thinks the technology is outpacing the law.

Steve Fryburg

He said the United States needs to put in place a legal and moral framework to guide the use of drones before deploying them en masse.

Fryburg said the government’s use of drone strikes, including the targeted killings of Americans deemed enemies of the state, sets a dangerous precedent and is costing the U.S. goodwill abroad. He sees the same thing happening with the privacy issue domestically.

“I feel that we need to look at this technology responsibly and not go at it full-speed ahead,” Fryburg said.

Mishak found himself at the center of criticism earlier this month when a flier disparaging his class began circulating around the LCCC campus.

“Join this exciting new course and find yourself part of the exciting new field responsible for cool flying gizmos that bring dread to countless innocent people worldwide – not to mention the deaths of countless innocent children!” the unsigned flier said.

It also said that students in the class would be able to sell their souls for jobs and “develop an ethical remove between yourself and villainized foreign innocents!”

“Help make instructor Matthew Mishak’s dream of localizing unmanned drone technology in Lorain County come true!” the flier concluded Mishak said he was surprised and taken aback by the flier.

“I think that those distributing that flier are preying upon fears regarding technology to promote their personal political agenda,” he said. “The reason that this is unfortunate is because Lorain County needs to promote a culture of embracing and understanding technology. Fear of technology will only hurt our local economy.”

Mishak believes that drones have applications that can help people do jobs that are “dull, dirty or dangerous,” such as inspecting power lines or roofs.
He also sees the possibility for law enforcement and search-and-rescue applications.

But beyond that he thinks drones have the potential to help revive Lorain County’s flagging manufacturing base.

Boon for business

One thing is certain — interest in the development and use of drones is growing.

In February 2012, President Barack Obama signed the Federal Aviation Administration Modernization and Reform Act, calling for the aggressive implementation of drones in national airspace by 2015.

Drones are limited to flying under 400 feet and within eyeshot of the operator. They also can be used by colleges and first responders such as police and fire departments under current rules.

Mishak said he sees a day in the near future when drones are assigned to perform tasks such as inspecting and repairing wind turbines.

Vista UAS, the Seville company that donated the two drones to the Medina County Sheriff’s Office in 2011, has been working for about eight years to develop their drone Bryon Macron, sales manager for Vista UAS, said drones are cheaper than manned helicopters, and in a hostage situations or fires, they can provide “eyes in the sky” without risking human life.

The company has a couple of different drone types to perform tasks. The type given to the sheriff is equipped with an infrared camera. Other models can obtain reading on an ammonia or natural gas leak.

The plans to mainstream drones coupled with predictions from the Teal Group, an aerospace industry market analysis firm, which forecasted that the market for drones will grow from a $5.9 billion per year industry to $11.3 billion over the next decade, have encouraged Mishak and his co-instructor, math and science professor Marlin Linger, that drones may provide a key to the county’s economic future.

“Ohio already has all of the resources necessary for drone manufacturing and development,” Mishak said. “Carbon fiber, flexible electronics and transportation industries are already in place.”

With the use of drones on the rise, the FAA is seeking to establish six testing sites for drones in the United States, with a facility in Dayton high in the rankings.

Mishak hopes to create opportunities in Lorain County, not just in testing but also in the manufacturing of multi-rotor helicopter frames and the programming of the microprocessors, which allow the crafts to fly autonomously.

But Fryburg said he thinks the business case for drones is being overstated.

He said he lives in the Dayton-area, which has become Ohio’s drone hub thanks to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and drone programs at Springfield-Beckley Airport and Sinclair Community College.

He doesn’t think the drones will bring in enough jobs to justify the problems that accompany them.

“We could do more with producing green energy in Ohio and bringing green industry to Ohio,” Fryburg said.

Mishak said he wants to show that civilian use of unmanned aircraft systems will eventually surpass use by the military for waging war in the coming years.

That’s what the class, which starts Feb. 25, is all about, he said — building and programming multi-rotor helicopters to take off, fly and land themselves.

While last semester’s class enjoyed a solid enrollment of 10 students, the students and professors were limited by equipment restraints and were only able to cover one aspect of drone control over the 10-week period — keeping crafts upright and level in the air.

Now, thanks to the acquisition of new microprocessors, students will be able to program their drones to account for everything from altitude to geospatial position with minimal control needed from the ground.

Another important feature for Mishak is the open-source nature of the new microprocessors.

The programmer, for instance, will have the power to change any aspect of the code dictating the behavior of the drone.

“Students will be able to plot out the entire course of their craft from the computer and then watch the craft execute it exactly above their heads,” Mishak said. “If they want to tweak the programming, maybe build a hybrid air-and-land vehicle? No problem.”

Law applications

Lorain County sheriff’s Chief Deputy Dennis Cavanaugh said his office is interested in exploring the uses drones could have for law enforcement.

But he also thinks they will eventually fall under limits similar those placed on infrared technology, which allows police to peer into buildings and examine heat signatures.

The courts have barred officers from driving up and down streets using infrared cameras to search for marijuana grow operations, for instance.

The Medina County Sheriff’s Office already has a drone its officers have been training with and Cavanaugh said Lorain County will likely be getting one in the next few months. He said the best use for the drones will be searching for missing persons or suspects in large areas with difficult terrain.

Drones would be able to fly grid searches over the area and relay information to those on the ground.

“We’ll have to try it and see how it works,” he said.

Chronicle intern Mark Allain contributed to this story.